The westerlands are considered the richest region of Westeros because of their deep mines filled with gold, silver, and other minerals in large quantities. In some cases, the mines and castles were interwoven, such as Casterly Rock and Castamere and the abundance of minerals has made these few prominent houses very wealthy, most notably the Lannisters of Casterly Rock. Other mines include Nunn's Deep, the Pendric Hills, Golden Tooth, and Silverhill. Between the rugged, tree covered ridges are broad and fertile valleys, lush with forests and spring fed rivers. These valleys are controlled by ancient houses, some dating back to the First Men of the Andal Invasion, such as Deep Den, Hornvale, Ashemark, Cornfield, and Sarsfield. These strongholds often protect flourishing towns such as Oxcross or Hawthorne, smaller villages, and farms nearby, which trade along the rivers and roads leading into the riverlands and the Reach. To the west is the Sunset Sea and the coast is dotted with watchtowers, holdfasts, and castles designed to withstand invasions from the Iron Islands. The two regions have a sordid history of warfare, and houses such as Feastfires, Banefort, Kayce, and Faircastle have historically strong military and naval forces. The Westerlands as a whole could raise around fifty thousand troops, fifty or sixty large ships, and longships for coastal defense, with the majority in service of the city of Lannisport or House Lannister.
Lannisport is the largest city in the Westerlands, and the third largest on the continent. It is named for Lann the Clever, who in the Age of Heroes tricked House Casterly and took their ancient fortress of Casterly Rock. He founded House Lannister and a prosperous city grew in the shadow of the massive castle. Lannisport has one of the best trained city watches, strong walls and defenses, a wide harbor and is the busiest port on the western seas, attracting trade from major cities around the world because of it trade in gold, silver, and precious metals from the mines of the westerlands.
Many petty kings once ruled in the westerlands, some founded by the First Men such as the Brooms, Farmans, Footes, Greenfields, Hawthornes, Morelands, Plumms, and Reynes. After the Andal Invasion, these kings mixed with new families and founded other houses such as Brax, Drox, Jast, Kyndall, Lefford, Marbrand, Parren, Sarsfield, and Serrett. But the area was not unified until the rise of House Lannister and the Kingdom of the Rock. Under their rule, the westerlands were involved in bitter rivalries with the Reach to the south and the riverlands to the east. House Crakehall is known for protecting the southern road into the region and the Golden Tooth protects the region from the east, which established the borders of the kingdom. During Aegon's conquest, House Lannister joined with House Gardener, but were defeated and swore allegiance to the Targaryens. During the Targaryen dynasty, House Lannister has remained loyal and avoided conflict during the various scandals and divisions between Targaryen families. But rivals to House Lannister such as the Reynes of Castamere or the Tarbecks of Tarbeck Hall took advantage of the weak leadership of Tytos Lannister and started a rebellion. Tywin Lannister took command from his father, crushed the rebellion, exterminated his enemies, and razed Castemere and Tarbeck Hall to the ground,and secured his family's legacy and prominence in the region. In Robert's Rebellion, the westerlands under Tywin Lannister remained neutral at first, then supported the royalists, but eventually joined the rebels, sacked King's Landing and helped end the war. Twyin's daughter, Cersei Lannister, married Robert Baratheon, and is currently the Queen Regent of the Seven Kingdoms. House Lannister plays a critical role in the early stages of the War of the Five Kings.
The third largest city in Westeros, after Oldtown and King's Landing. A prosperous harbor, fertile lands, mineral rich mines, and strong defenses have made this city crucial to the success of the Westerlands. The Lannisters control the city both from Casterly Rock, but also a cadet branch called House Lannister of Lannisport.
- Casterly Rock
A naturally defensible rock formation that was transformed into a nearly untakeable castle by the now extinct House Casterly. In the Age of Heroes, Lann the Clever tricked Lord Casterly and the castle has never fallen since. The towers of Casterly Rock overlook the city of Lannisport and is the seat of House Lannister.
A castle and town in hills near the sourcoe of the Tumblestone. Seat of House Marbrand.
A castle and lighthouse on a penisula in Ironman's Bay and have often defended the Westerlands from attacks from the Ironborn. Seat of House Banefort.
- The Crag
A castle in disrepair along the shore of the Sunset Sea. Seat of House Westerling.
A ruined castle built into the side of a mountain north of Lannisport. Once the seat of House Reyne, now extinct because they opposed Tywin Lannister. The song "Rains of Castamere" takes it's name and story from this castle's destruction.
A town in a fertile valley south of the Golden Tooth near one of the sources of the Red Fork. Seat of House Brax.
- Deep Den
A mountain castle and valley on the Gold Road. Seat of House Lydden.
- Golden Tooth
The castle which defends an important mountain pass into the Westerlands from the Riverlands. Rugged mountain peaks create a natural choke point which has been fortified to become almost "The Gate to the Westerlands." Seat of House Lefford.
A secluded castle with abundant silver mines near the source of a river running south past Goldengrove to the Mander. Seat of House Serrett.
A keep near the border with the Reach between Greenfield and Turnberry in an area with fertile soil. Seat of House Swyft.
- Clegane Hall
A towerhouse near Greenfield and Silverhill. Seat of House Clegane, a house of landed knights created by the Lannisters for their service to Casterly Rock.
A castle and lighthouse on the far western point of the Westerlands on a penisula. Seat of House Prester.
A keep and port town near Feastfires on the Sunset Sea. Seat of House Kenning.
A strategic castle along the road from the Golden Tooth to Lannisport. Seat of House Sarsfield.
A castle and town on Fair Isle and historically a rival to House Lannister with considerable naval forces. Seat of House Farman.
A keep situated between a large forest and the Sunset Sea. Seat of House Crakehall.
- Tarbeck Hall
A ruined castle along the coast of the Sunset Sea south of Lannisport. Once the seat of the now extinct House Tarbeck, destroyed by Tywin Lannister along with the Reynes of Castamere.
A small keep on Ironman's Bay near Banefort. Seat of House Estren.
A woodland castle in the deep forest of the southern Westerlands, supposedly built into a large weirwood. Seat of House Greenfield.
- House Algood
A knightly house sworn to the Lannisters south of Lannisport.
- House Bettley
A noble house situated on the mountain road between Hornvale and Sarsfield.
- House Broom
A noble house south of Silverhill near a river flowing into the Reach.
- House Clifton
A vassal house of House Farman on the northern tip of Fair Isle.
- House Doggett
A noble house on Ironman's Bay, near Wyndhall.
- House Drox
A noble hosue with a prominent point that is sheltered by Fair Isle.
- House Falwell
A vassal house of House Serrett, between Silverhill and Broom.
- House Ferren
A noble house in a broad valley east of Deep Den.
- House Foote
A noble house on the Tumblestone west of Riverrun.
- House Garner
A noble house near the Reach, at one point related to House Varner of the Reach.
- House Hamell
A noble house on the Sunset Sea, northeast of Feastfires and Kayce.
- House Hetherspoon
A knightly house sworn to the Lannisters, southwest of Lannisport.
- House Jast
A noble house near Red Lake and the Reach.
- House Lorch
A noble house on the Tumblestone, between Foote and the Pendric Hills.
- House Moreland
A noble house north of Lannisport and controlling an important bridge over a major river.
- House Myatt
An isolated noble house in the mountains near Ashemark.
- House Parren
A noble house, location unknown.
- House Payne
A noble house near the Tumblestone and Nunn's Deep.
- House Peckledon
A noble house near the Reach on the outskirts of the Westerlands.
- House Plumm
A noble house near Cornfield and Turnberry.
- House Ruttiger
A knightly house sworn to the Lannisters and east of Lannisport.
- House Spicer
A young house in the Westerlands formed from spice traders, some from Essos. Currently occupying the former Castamere lands, but not the ruined castle.
- House Stackspear
A noble house between the Crag and the Banefort.
- House Turnberry
A noble house situated near Greenfield and Cornfield.
- House Vikary
A noble house situated in a valley near Castamere and the Crag.
- House Yarwyck
A noble house near Wyndhall, but further inland away from the sea.
- House Yew
A noble house south of the Gold Road near Deep Den.
A village between Sarsfield and Lannisport, attacked during the War of the Five Kings.
- Pendric Hills
A series of gold mines northeast of Ashemark and near Nunn's Deep.
- Nunn's Deep
A gold mine northeast of Ashemark and near the Pendric Hills.
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